Analysis of energy drinks by capillary electrophoresis

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People around the world use energy drinks to improve their focus and productivity. One of the most effective ways to analyze these drinks is capillary electrophoresis. This article examines the potential and relevance in comparison to alternative methods such as liquid chromatography.
Most energy drinks are made from caffeine-rich compounds, including caffeine and glutamate. Caffeine is a stimulant alkaloid found in more than 63 plant species worldwide. Pure caffeine is a bitter, tasteless, white solid. Molecular weight of caffeine 194.19 g, melting point 2360°C. Caffeine is hydrophilic at room temperature with a maximum concentration of 21.7 g/l due to its moderate reactivity.
Soft drinks are complex systems that contain many different ingredients, both inorganic and organic. Separation checks are essential to accurately detect and evaluate various other types of caffeine and benzoates. The most common method used to evaluate combinatorial separations is liquid chromatography (LC).
Liquid chromatography is reported to be used to distinguish between a wide range of organic molecules, from small molecular weight contaminants to antimicrobial peptides. Different interfaces between the moving and stationary phases of molecules in a sample underlie the separation of liquid chromatography. The tighter the bond, the better the molecule holds its position.
An alternative to HPLC procedures is separation by narrow bore fused silica capillary electrophoresis, which uses an electric field to separate compounds from different chemical groups in a single sample. CE can be divided into several separation modes depending on the capillaries and ions used.
The capillary electrophoresis method is very useful for food and beverage evaluation due to its advantages of low sample and reagent consumption, short analysis time, low operating cost, high resolution, high removal efficiency, ease of experimentation and fast process development.
The electrophoresis separation method is based on the different movements of chemical ions in an electrolytic cell under the action of an applied electric field. Compared with complex liquid chromatography equipment, capillary electrophoresis equipment is basically simple. A connecting pipe with an inner diameter of 25-100 m and a span of 20-100 cm connects two buffer cells, into which high-voltage power (0-30 kV) is supplied through conductors and an efficient electrolysis circuit is loaded as a charged carrier.
Typically, the anode is considered the capillary inlet and the cathode is considered the capillary outlet. A small amount of sample is injected hydraulically or electrically into the anode side of the capillary. Motorized infusion is performed by replacing the buffer reservoir with a sample vial and applying electrical current for a period of time to allow particles to move into the capillary.
Hydrostatic infusion delivers the sample based on the pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of the capillary, and the amount of sample injected is determined by the pressure drop and the thickness of the polymer matrix. After the sample is loaded, a portion of the sample accumulates at the capillary opening.
Separation properties of capillary electrophoresis techniques can be measured in two ways: separation resolution, Rs, and separation efficiency. The resolution of two analytes shows how effectively they can distinguish each other. The larger the Rs value, the more pronounced the particular peak. Separation resolution quantifies separation efficiency and evaluates whether adjustments in the experimental environment can result in separation of mixtures.
Separation efficiency N is an imaginary area in which two stages are in equilibrium with each other, represented by a number of different panels, depending on the quality of the column and liquid.
A new study published at the International Conference on Agriculture and Sustainability aims to investigate the ability of capillary electrophoresis to identify nitrogenous compounds and ascorbic acid in beverages, as well as the effect of electrophoresis variables on the quantitative properties of the method.
Advantages of capillary electrophoresis over high performance liquid chromatography include low research cost and environmental compatibility, as well as evaluation of asymmetric organic acid or base peaks. Capillary electrophoresis provides sufficient accuracy for the identification of labile chemicals in complex matrices with some basic parameters (dispersion of the dough in a moving buffer, ensuring the homogeneity of the buffer composition, constancy of the temperature of the separating layers).
In summary, although capillary electrophoresis has many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography, it also has disadvantages such as long analysis times. Further research needs to be done to find ways to improve this method.
Rashid, SA, Abdulla, SM, Najeeb, BH, Hamarashid, SH, & Abdulla, OA (2021). Rashid, SA, Abdulla, SM, Najeeb, BH, Hamarashid, SH, & Abdulla, OA (2021). Rashid, S.A., Abdullah, S.M., Najib, B.H., Hamarasheed, S.H., and Abdullah, O.A. (2021). Rashid S.A., Abdullah S.M., Najib B.H., Hamarasheed S.H. and Abdulla O.A. (2021). Determination of caffeine and sodium benzoate in imported and local energy drinks using HPLC and spectrophotometer. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Available at:
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Khasanov, VV, Slizhov, YG, & Khasanov, VV (2013). Khasanov, VV, Slizhov, YG, & Khasanov, VV (2013). Khasanov V.V., Slizhov Yu.G., Khasanov V.V. (2013). Khasanov V.V., Slizhov Yu.G., Khasanov V.V. (2013). Analysis of energy drinks by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Available at:
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Ibtisam graduated from the Islamabad Institute of Space Technology with a bachelor’s degree in aerospace engineering. During his academic career, he has been involved in several research projects and has successfully organized several extra-curricular activities such as the International World Space Week and the International Conference on Aerospace Engineering. Ibtisam won an English language essay competition during his student days and has always shown a keen interest in research, writing and editing. Shortly after graduation, he joined AzoNetwork as a freelancer to improve his skills. Ibtisam loves to travel, especially in the countryside. He has always been a sports fan and enjoyed watching tennis, football and cricket. Born in Pakistan, Ibtisam hopes to one day travel the world.
Abbasi, Ibtisam. (April 4, 2022). Analysis of energy drinks by capillary electrophoresis. AZOM. Retrieved October 13, 2022 from
Abbasi, Ibtisam. “Analysis of Energy Drinks by Capillary Electrophoresis”. AZOM. October 13, 2022 . October 13, 2022 .
Abbasi, Ibtisam. “Analysis of Energy Drinks by Capillary Electrophoresis”. AZOM. (As of October 13, 2022).
Abbasi, Ibtisam. 2022. Analysis of energy drinks by capillary electrophoresis. AZoM, accessed 13 October 2022,
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Post time: Oct-14-2022
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